• Fri. May 14th, 2021

Skye's Crescent Radio

American Music and Community

 

MUSIC

 

What is sound? Vibrations in the air

What is music? Controlled or Manipulated Vibrations

What is pitch? Measured Vibrations

 

What is frequency? Number of revolutions per second of the vibration or Hertz (Hz)

Our Human ears can only hear a range of 20Hz – 20,000Hz

 

By measuring the frequencies and recognizing the patterns, Pythagoras discovered that a note repeats itself an octave higher every time the frequency is doubled.

 

If A = 220Hz, the next A = 440Hz, 880Hz and on.

Example: hold any string on any instrument at the halfway point and you will always hear one octave higher.

 

He then used division and fractions to discover the 12 tones between every octave.

 

There are tones from other cultures that go even further. There are divisions of notesin between the tones that we use.

The music theory that we study comes from Western Europe only based on these first 12 notes.

Instead notes inbetween can be expressed by pitch bending.

It’s worth studying other types of music theory but for basic piano and guitar we will focus on Western Europeon Music Theory.

NOTES ON THE PIANO

 

The piano has a bottom row of white keys and a top row of black keys.

 

            BK                    BK                                            BK                    BK                    BK       

WK       WK       WK       WK       WK       WK       WK

 

Notice on top there is a set of 2 Black Keys and a set of 3 Black Keys

 

C is the White Key to the Left of a set of 2 Black Keys

F is the White Key to the Left of a set of 3 Black Keys

 

            BK                    BK                                            BK                    BK                    BK       

C                      WK       WK       F                      WK       WK       WK

 

Find all the C’s.

Find all the F’s.

 

Here are the note placements in between:

            BK                    BK                                BK                    BK                    BK       

C          .           D          .           E          F          .           G          .           A          .           B          C

 

Find D, A, E, B.

*if this is hard, draw out the piano on a sheet of paper and label the notes.

Memorize the note names and think or say them out load as you play them. 

 

Songs to play with the 1st 5 Notes.

Ode to Joy

 

 

 

 

What are the Black keys?

 

Black key to the Right (Up) of a White Key is Sharp (#)

Black key to the Left (down) of a White Key is Flat (b)

 

            C#/Db                           D#/Eb                                                   F#/Gb                           G#/Ab                          A#/Bb              

C                      .                       D                      .                       E                      F                      .                       G                      .                       A                      .                       B                      C

 

The space between the notes is called a STEP

Half Step = 1 step

Whole Step = 2 steps

 

*notice there is only 1 step between the E and F notes and the B and C notes

C can also be called B# and B can also be called Cb

F can also be called E# and E can also be called Fb

 

There are 12 notes total that cycle over and over.

Each cycle is called an Octave.

 

NOTES ON THE GUITAR

 

There are six strings on the guitar.

The top string is the string that sounds the highest. The 1st string. This is the high or top E string.

The bottom string is the string that sounds the lowest. The 6th string. This is the low or bottom E string.

From the Bottom to Top, the open notes on the strings are E A D G B E

Open means not holding the string down on any fret.

You can think of it as Fret 0.

Frets are the bars underneath the strings. Guitars have 22-24 frets.

 

Here are the Natural Notes of the first 5 frets:

            0pen                |                      1                      |                      2                      |                      3                      |                      4                      |                        5                      |

1                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                       G                      |                                              |                     A                      |

2                      B                      |                      C                      |                                              |                      D                      |                                              |                      E                      |

3                      G                      |                                              |                      A                      |                                              |                      B                      |                      C                      |

4                      D                      |                                              |                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                      G                      |

5                      A                      |                                              |                      B                      |                      C                      |                                              |                      D                      |

6                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                      G                      |                                              |                      A                      |

 

*notice that the 5th Fret notes is the same as the open note on the next string up

This is true for all strings except the G String. Instead, the 4th Fret on the G String is B which is the next string.

 

This is how you tune the guitar! Listen to the notes very closely as you play them together and you will hear the revolutions out of tune. If the revolutions sound fast, that is bad. You want them to slow down all the way to playing in sync with each.

Hearing this will come in time. You should still use a tuner to help you tune your guitar.

 

Here are the notes on the 1st string.

 

            0pen                |                      1                      |                      2                      |                      3                      |         

1                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                       G                      |                                 

 

Use one finger per fret.  

1st finger (index) is  F

3rd finger (ring) is  G

 

Here are the notes on the 2nd String

            0pen                |                      1                      |                      2                      |                      3                      |         

2                      B                      |                      C                      |                                              |                      D                      |                                 

 

Songs to play on the first two strings:

Ode to Joy

E E F G | G F E D | C C D E | E D D

E E F G | G F E D | C C D E | D C C

 

*needs sheet music

 

Mary had a Little Lamb

 

Add the 3rd string

3                      G                      |                                              |                      A                      |                                              |                     

 

Songs to play on the first 3 strings:

Happy Birthday

 

 

4                      D                      |                                              |                      E                      |                      F                      |                                             

 

 

5                      A                      |                                              |                      B                      |                      C                      |                                             

6                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                      G                      |                                             

 

 

Natural Notes in the first 5 frets:

            0pen                |                      1                      |                      2                      |                      3                      |                      4                      |                        5                      |

1                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                       G                      |                                              |                     A                      |

2                      B                      |                      C                      |                                              |                      D                      |                                              |                      E                      |

3                      G                      |                                              |                      A                      |                                              |                      B                      |                      C                      |

4                      D                      |                                              |                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                      G                      |

5                      A                      |                                              |                      B                      |                      C                      |                                              |                      D                      |

6                      E                      |                      F                      |                                              |                      G                      |                                              |                      A                      |

 

 

All Notes in the first 5 frets:                                                                  

            0pen                |                      1                      |                      2                      |                      3                      |                      4                      |                        5                      |

1                      E                      |                      F                      |          F#/Gb               |                       G                      |          G#/Ab              |                      A                      |

2                      B                      |                      C                      |          C#/Db               |                      D                      |          D#/Eb               |                      E                      |

3                      G                      |          G#/Ab              |                      A                      |          A#/Bb               |                      B                      |                      C                      |

4                      D                      |          D#/Eb               |                      E                      |                      F                      |          F#/Gb               |                      G                      |

5                      A                      |          A#/Bb               |                      B                      |                      C                      |          C#/Db               |                      D                      |

6                      E                      |                      F                      |          F#/Gb               |                      G                      |          G#/Ab              |                      A                      |

 

 

SCALES

 

What is a scale?  A pattern of whole steps and half steps

 

The Pattern of the Major Scale is:

         W                            W                              H                         W                                  W                                 W                     H

 

You can apply this pattern starting on any note and it will sound like a major scale.

The notes are the same as the Solfedge tones: Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Ti Do

 

If you start the pattern on C, you will get all the natural notes, (white keys)

 

         W                            W                              H                         W                                  W                                 W                     H

Do                                            RE                                            Mi                    Fa                                            Sol                                           La                                             Ti                     Do

C                      .                       D                      .                       E                      F                      .                       G                      .                       A                      .                       B                      C

 

If you start the pattern a different note, you will get a mix of black and white keys:

 

         W                            W                              H                         W                                  W                                 W                     H

G                      .                       A                      .                       B                      C                      .                       D                      .                       E                      .                       F#                    G

F                      .                       G                      .                       A                      Bb                    .                       C                      .                       D                      .                       E                      F

 

We’ll just focus on C Major for now.

 

        W                             W                              H                         W                                  W                                 W                     H

C                      .                       D                      .                       E                      F                      .                       G                      .                       A                      .                       B                      C

1                                              2                                              3                      4                                              5                                              6                                              7                      8/1

 

The numbers underneath the notes are the Degree of the scale.

So, if I say play the 1st note in the C maj scale, you play C.

The 2nd note of the C Major Scale is D.

What is the 3rd note? What is the 5th note? 6th, 7th, 4th, 8th?

 

INTERVALS

 

An interval is the amount of space between two notes by the degree.

To find the space, count the number of letter names between the notes

 

m2       =          minor 2nd                                  C          Db                                1 half-step       

M2       =          major 2nd                                  C          D                                  2 half-steps

m3       =          minor 3rd                                  C          Eb                                3 half-steps

M3       =          Major 3rd                                  C          E                                  4 half-steps

P4         =          Perfect 4th                    C          F                                  5 half-steps

A4                    =          Augmented 4th  C          F#                                6 half-steps

D5                    =          Diminished 5th  C          Gb                                6 half-steps

P5                    =         

 

 

CHORDS

 

What is a chord? 2 or more notes played together

The most common chords are triads (3 notes: 1 3 5)

So to make up the C Major Chord = C E G

 

Here are the triads in the C Major Scale:

 

C          .           D          .           E          F          .           G          .           A          .           B          C          .           D          .           E          F          .           G            .           A          .           B          C

1                      2                      3          4                      5                      6                      7          1                      2                      3          4                      5                        6                      7          1

 

C          .           .           .           E          .           .           G

 

                        D          .           .           F          .           .           .           A         

 

                                                E          .           .           G          .           .           .           B

 

                                                            F          .           .           .           A          .           .           C

 

                                                                                    G          .           .           .           B          .           .           D

 

                                                                                                            A          .           .           C          .           .           .           E

 

                                                                                                                                    B          .           .           D          .           .           F

 

 

Here are the Triads spaced out by step:

 

C          .           .           .           E          .           .           G

D          .           .           F          .           .           .           A         

E          .           .           G          .           .           .           B

F          .           .           .           A          .           .           C

G          .           .           .           B          .           .           D

A          .           .           C          .           .           .           E

B          .           .           D          .           .           F

 

Just like the scales, chords can be thought of as a pattern of steps.

 

                                                2W                               1 ½W                             =                                              4HS                              3HS

C        .           .           .           E          .           .           G                                                                      C          .           .           .           E          .  .           G

           

Which other chords in C Major Scale have the 4 half step/3 half-step combo?

 

            2W                               1 ½W     

C          .           .           .           E          .           .           G

F          .           .           .           A          .           .           C

G          .           .           .           B          .           .           D

 

C F and G are the 1 4 and 5 chords and they are Major.

 

What about the other triads in the C Major Scale?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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